Problem Solving
11:49:4 2023-05-30 246

Individuals differ among themselves in their thinking styles and therefore in the methods of dealing with the many problems of life, as these methods differ from one individual to another and from time to time. Solving the problem to clarify this, it is necessary to review basic concepts related to thinking and its relationship to solving the problem, the methods and strategies that the individual adopts when facing the problem, the factors that determine such as the methods and strategies and their orientation, and the ways in which they are observed and investigated. Since the solution to the problem includes a kind of thinking, which results in a variety of thinking methods and strategies used by individuals in an attempt to find solutions to problems of different dimensions, the concept of thinking must be addressed first.


The concept of thinking and the concept of problem-solving are referred to as two synonymous terms due to the overlapping of cognitive activities related to each of them. .

John Dewey said that thinking is (the mental activity that aims to solve a problem or the mental state that arises if a person encounters a problem or gets in the way of an obstacle).

As for de Bono (1989), he defined thinking as (the deliberate investigation of experience for the sake of a purpose, and that purpose may be understanding, decision-making, planning, problem-solving, judging things, doing an action and so on.

Whereas Razzouk (1977) defines thinking in writing the Dictionary of Psychology and in its general sense as (every mental activity that differs from sensation and sensory perception or exceeds both together) to abstract ideas, and in its narrow or special sense every torrent or stream of ideas provoked by a problem or The issue of limiting the solution, as it refers to looking closely at things, turning them over, and examining them with the intention of verifying their validity or controlling them.

And Salih (1966) defined it as (the method of activity that the individual practices when he is facing a problem, and it is usually internal, and there are ways in which the mind works when it is facing a problem.

Nashawati (1985) believes that thinking (a cognitive activity that deals with the processing of symbols of various types and is usually used in situations involving problems that require appropriate solutions).

As for Muhammad (1964), he indicated that thinking is (every mental activity of any kind).

First: The necessity of having a problem or an obstacle that stimulates thinking, and this was emphasized by Salih (1966) when he indicated that thinking is intended to solve a specific problem.

Second: Thinking is an internal process that takes place in the human mind and we cannot observe it directly, but we infer it from the apparent behaviors and responses of the individual.

Third: Thinking represents a complex mental cognitive activity, through which work is done to recall previous experience by solving a current problem.

We conclude from all of this that the problem is the main element that stimulates the thinking of individuals, although most people have a kind of perception of the concept of the problem, it is useful to address some of the special features that characterize some researchers with the concept of the problem.

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